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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Defilement is traumatic and often associated with psychosocial problems in children, parental distress and ificant social strain on family relationships and well-being.
It adopted a qualitative descriptive de using interviews to obtain information from six purposely selected caregivers comprising of four mothers, one father and one grandmother. All the perpetrators were adult males and two of the defiled children were male and 5 were female.
Two of the children were siblings; a brother and his sister. The defiled children had negative outcomes in terms of poor academic performance, low self esteem, depression and poor social relationships. The caregivers felt ificant psychosocial distress.
There is therefore, need to routinely screen for psychological, social and physical outcomes of children exposed to defilement trauma and to always consider caregiver distress when treating these children.
Defilement is a debilitating experience for the victimized children with negative psychological, social, educational and physical health outcomes that are not only detrimental to the affected child but also their families and society at large Reza et al. Hillis et al.
The Sexual Offences Act further states that is anyone below the age of 18 years and that cannot consent to sexual activity with adults. The Convention on the Rights of the Child compels Defiled young social worker to take all appropriate legislative, administrative, social and educational measures to protect children from all forms of violence including defilement and sexual abuse United Nations, The recently set UN Sustainable Development Goals set an agenda for global human development endeavours from — in which they acknowledged defilement as a fundamental obstacle to the health of the children and society as a whole.
Psychosocial outcomes related to defilement of children demonstrate its negative impact on children with deleterious and far reaching negative consequences on their physical and mental health Jewkes et al. Similarly Alisic et al. Morris et al. A positive supportive family and social environment after children experience of defilement was associated with reduced risks for negative psychological outcomes Kinnally et al.
They hypothesized that negative appraisals of trauma in children by the caregivers and dysfunctional strategies in handling the children gave negative psychological outcomes Ehlers et al. The study employed a qualitative descriptive de using study guides to conduct interviews to obtain information from six purposely selected caregivers comprising of four mothers, one father and one grandmother.
The two hospitals were chosen because they were both conveniently located in Nairobi and were centres of excellence in looking after children and women. Those who were recruited into the study were caregivers of defiled children with their defiled children. The children had been put on standard treatments provided at the GBVR centres in both hospitals. Participants whose clinical status after examination was found to be in need of emergency treatment were attended to with liaison to the clinicians at the two GBVR centres.
The study included those who were able to understand English or Kiswahili or use of an interpreter for those who did not understand either language. The participants were consecutively recruited. A caregiver of a defiled boy or girl was selected from the age groups of 7—10 years, 10—14 years and 14—17 years to a total of 6 participating caregivers. An interview guide was used to establish, from the caregivers, how the incidence of defilement had affected the child, the family, and relations of the child with the family, peers and neighbourhood including schooling.
The occurrence of symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, low self-esteem and school performance was inquired into by conversation. Qualitative narratives with the caregivers enabled the researchers to collect richer data, greater density of information, more vivid Defiled young social worker and clarity of meaning that cannot generally be acquired through quantitative measures. The process employed good communication and rapport-building skills, using a non-judgmental attitude and observing verbal and non-verbal cues during interview.
Observation was employed particularly in the early stages to help guide the study, ensure quality and to provide first- hand experience to the researcher. Funding for the study was obtained from the National Institute of Mental Health NIMH through project R34 which also provided the researcher with oversight and resources around child mental health and qualitative research.
The details of ethical considerations was laid down in the letter of consent namely; consent explanation, confidentiality, personal and general risks and benefits, and the right not to participate or to withdraw anytime was explained to the participants by the researcher. Once informed consent was obtained the qualitative narratives were conducted using interview guides. The researcher transcribed the audio data providing the ideal opportunity to commence the process of analysis, as the files needed to be frequently replayed during the transcription process.
Data was entered into N-vivo 12 software and the themes united for analysis. The researcher adapted an iterative approach to ascertain similarities and differences in the form of excerpts and expressions. Study guided interviews were held with 6 caretakers who consisted of five parents mothers and a male guardian and the defiled children were seven.
All the perpetrators were adult males and they defiled both male 2 and female 5 children. One of the defiled children had mental retardation.
One parent reported that two of her children — a boy and girl — had been defiled yet they did not disclose even after repeated defilement as did a boy who was repeatedly defiled by a neighbour who also used the child for trafficking drugs. The child victims of repeated defilement by the same perpetrator did not report the defilement because of threats issued by perpetrators. The study comprised of caregivers of 5 girls and 2 boys from the following age groups of 7—10 years, 11—14 years and 15—17 years making a total of 7 defiled children and 6 caretaker narratives.
Table I below shows the characteristics of the defiled children and their perpetrators. The defiled girl was 15 years old and in class eight and an only .
She lived with her mother and stepfather for a while before coming to live with her grandmother. She currently lives with her grandmother who was given custody of the child through the chief of the area where they lived. She was progressing well in school and was happy about life before the defilement incidence. The perpetrator was unknown to the. Her grandmother was 46 years and a businesswoman operating a shop outside the plot where they lived.
The grandmother was not married and had four children including the mother of her granddaughter. This girl was 13 years with mental disability mental retardation. She was defiled by a person known to her.
She is the first born among three siblings, her sister is 10 years and the brother is 7 years while the last born is six months. She was in class 5 and used to go to school before being taken to Kirigiti Rehabilitation Centre by the police due to running away from home and wandering on the streets at night.
She did not have the behaviour of running away from home before the defilement incidence. The caretaker was a single mother who was 40 years and unemployed. This girl was 8 years. She was the first born girl in a family of three children.
Her brother was 10 years and her younger sister was 6 years. They lived as a family consisting of the mother, father and her siblings before the defilement incidence. On examination by the doctors her hymen had been broken an indication that this could not have ben her first defilement incidence. She looked sad during the interview though the mother reported that she was always in jovial mood and played with the other children and her siblings.
She is in class 2 and she was defiled by her biological father. She says the defilement has made her neighbours to ask her many questions which made her sad. They have however moved from that estate to another home where the neighbours are not aware of the incidence. She also changed schools because fellow children teased her after they knew about the defilement incidence. Her father separated with the mother due to the defilement incidence, currently the father is in jail and he was 37 years.
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Her mother was 35 years and used to work in a cleaning company before the incidence of defilement, she lost her job because of the many off duty permissions she had to request to attend to her daughter needs. The girl was 14 years old and was in class 8. She was defiled by a neighbour who was unknown to her. She enjoyed life and was doing well in school and preparing to do her exams. She had come home from school with her friends who had visited her.
After the defilement incidence, she became pregnant and the circumstances forced her to drop out of school.
As a result she attempted sucide. The mother was a single parent aged 42 years old and unemployed. The boy was 10 years in class 4 and was defiled by a person unknown to him but who lived in their neighbourhood. His parents had separated but his father leaved close by. The child is able to visit the father during school holidays. The boy looked withdrawn and sad though he says he enjoys life. He is in school and the performance is average. The boy is an only child to a 45 year old woman who gets her income from selling vegetables. This is a case of an 8 year old boy and his sister who is 14 years old.
The boy looks happy but the girl looks sad.